Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) refrigerants are used in a wide variety of HVAC&R equipment. HFCs when released to the atmosphere have significant Global Warming Potential (GWP).
Thus, under the European F-gas regulation issued in 2014, HFC use has to be phased-out by 80% until 2030 and replaced by low-GWP alternatives, such as hydrocarbons (HC). Refrigerant R290 (propane) has near-to-zero GWP and is an excellent alternative to be used in small hermetic systems, like residential air conditioners. Indeed, under EU standard EN 378, systems with a charge size of 0.15 kg or less may be installed in any size of room.
However, because of the required refrigerant amount, the use of R290 in standard “split” air-conditioners is practically unfeasible.